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Thursday, 21 January 2016

Definition of Self Directed Learning

SELF DIRECTED LEARNING (BELAJAR MANDIRI)
A. Definition (Pengertian Belajar Mandiri)
Brockett and Hiemstra (1991) claim that, "self-direction in learning refers to both the external characteristics of an instructional process and the internal characteristics of the learner, where the individual assumes primary responsibility for a learning experience" (p. 24).

Gibbons (2002) stated that “SDL is any increase in knowledge, skill, accomplishment, or personal development that an individual selects and brings about by his or her own efforts using any method in any circumstances at any time” (p. 2).

Kasworm (1983) stated that self-directed learning can be viewed as a "set of generic, finite behaviors; as a belief system reflecting and evolving from a process of self-initiated learning activity; or as an ideal state of the mature self-actualized learner" (p. 1).

Knowles (1975) described Self-Directed Learning (SDL) broadly as “a process in which individuals take the initiative, with or with out the help of other, to diagnose their learning needs, formulate learning goals, identify resources for learning, select and implement learning strategies, and evaluate learning outcomes” (p. 18).

Long (dalam Bath & Kamath, 2005) self directed learning adalah
proses mental yang biasanya disertai dan didukung dengan aktivitas perilaku yang
meliputi identifikasi dan pencarian informasi.

Jarvis (dalam Darmayanti, 1993) Self
Directed Learning (SDL) yang dimiliki oleh pelajar didefinisikan sebagai
kemampuan untuk berinisiatif dalam mengatur (regulate), mengelola dan
mengontrol proses belajarnya untuk mengatasi berbagai masalah dalam
belajar dengan mempergunakan berbagai alternatif atau strategi belajar.

So according to our opinion, self directed learning is a process planning study that independently starting from the preparation of the study, looking for learning strategies, achieving the goals of the study even manage the learning system is independently conducted with the aim to develop initiative, kreaktivitas, mindset and knowledge as well as information obtained from learning that is conducted independently.
In addition to the definition of self-directed learning, there is also a difference between self-directed teacher with a self-directed learner i.e. If self-directed teacher learning occurs only in one direction, while the self-directed learner is more open, and learning happens from all directions


B. Self-Directed Learning have a Four-Step Process 
Self-directed learning can be challenging, even for the brightest and most motivated students. As a means of better understanding the processes involved in this mode of study, this tip sheet outlines key components of four key stages to independent learning – being ready to learn, setting learning goals, engaging in the learning process, and evaluating learning – and offers some tips for both faculty members and students.


1. Being ready to learn

Various skills and attitudes towards learning are required for successful independent study (See the Centre for Teaching Excellence (CTE) teaching tip on "Readiness to Learn" for more details). This step requires time for analysing a student’s current situation, study habits, family situation, and support network both at school and at home – and as they continue in the program, progress in degree program and past units taken that will prove useful. Signs of readiness for self-directed learning include being: autonomous, organised, self-disciplined, able to communicate effectively, and able to accept constructive feedback and engage in self-evaluation and self¬-reflection.

2. Setting learning goals
Communication of learning goals between a student and the advising faculty member is critical (See the CTE teaching tip on "Unit Planning Decision Guide"). Learning contracts are highly recommended tools for successful self-directed learning experiences (see example on CTE’s "Learning Contracts" teaching tip). Learning contracts generally include:
Goals for the unit of study
Structure and sequence of activities
A timeline for completion of activities
Details about resource materials for each goal
Details about grading procedures
A section for advising faculty member feedback and evaluation as each goal is completed
A plan for regular meetings with the advising faculty member and other unit policies, such as work turned in late


3. Engaging in the learning process

Students need to understand themselves as learners in order to understand their needs as self-directed learning students (See the CTE teaching tip on "Understanding Your Learning Style"). Students should also consider answering the following questions:
What are my needs re: instructional methods?
Who was my favourite teacher? Why?
What did they do that was different from other teachers? Students should reflect on these questions throughout their program and substitute “teacher” with “advising faculty member”
Students also need to understand their approach to studying:
Deep approach involves transforming – to understand ideas for yourself; be able to apply knowledge to new situations and use novel examples to explain a concept; learn more than is required for unit completion – most ideal for self-directed learning.
Surface approach involves reproducing – to cope with unit requirements; learn only what is required to complete unit in good standing; tend to regurgitate examples and explanations used in readings.
Strategic approach involves organizing – to achieve the highest possible grades; learn what is required to pass exams; memorize facts as given in lecture; spend much time practicing from past exams; most concerned with whether material will appear on exam.
Earlier academic work may have encouraged a surface or strategic approach to studying. These approaches will not be sufficient (or even appropriate) for successful independent study. Independent study requires a deep approach to studying, in which students must understand ideas and be able to apply knowledge to new situations. Students need to generate their own connections and be their own motivators.


4. Evaluating learning

Students must be able to engage in self-reflection and self-evaluation of learning goals and progress in a unit of study.
Students should regularly consult with the advising faculty member.
Students should be able to engage in self-validation of achievements, but should have the motivation to seek feedback on progress and ideas from the advising faculty member or other available resources.
Self-evaluation involves asking:
o How do I know I’ve learned?
o Am I flexible in adapting and applying knowledge?
o Do I have confidence in explaining material?
o When do I know I’ve learned enough?
o When is it time for self-reflection and when is it time for consultation with the advising faculty member?

C. What Can Teachers do to Support Self-Directed Learning?
One of the most important tasks of the teacher is to raise student awareness of their roles in learning. Taylor (1995) suggests engaging students in discussion on topics from the Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale. Examples of topics are: I know that I want to learn and that I am a learner, so if I want to learn something, I can, and I like to learn and to solve problems because I know that thinking 'hard' can be fun. The exercise of evaluating oneself on such topics was found to have positively influenced learner awareness. Lyman (1997), who works with readers, suggests generating similar discussion through the use of questions designed to help learners become aware of what good readers do and how to become one. Among the examples he provides are: Did you read better today than yesterday? Could you keep the ideas in your book straight in your mind? Were there words you did not know? How did you figure them out?

Teachers need to model learning strategies such as predicting, questioning, clarifying, and summarizing, so that students will develop the ability to use these strategies on their own. Teachers also need to allow individual learners to approach a task in different ways using different strategies.
D. There are some indicators of SDL
Students who are self-directed learners might display some of the following behaviours:

 indicators of SDL


1. Ownership of Learning
Students set learning targets for himself/herself.
2. Management and Monitoring of Own Learning
Students know which parts of the lessons that do not understand.
Students ask questions when student is not sure about the lessons.
Students look for more information to help student understand the lessons better.
Students make a list of what they needs to do for his/her learning.
Students complete their schoolwork on time.
Students try to understand where they went wrong in their schoolwork.
Students try different ways to solve problems on their own.
3. Extension of Own Learning
Students use what they learn in class after the lessons.
Students find out more than what their teachers teach them in school.
Students use the computer to go online to ask people outside their school for ideas on the lessons;  become better at a skill that they is interested in e.g. learn a language; and/or get ideas from different websites and people to learn more about a topic.


E. The advantages and disadvantages of self-directed learning

The advantages of self-directed learning:
Self-directed learnng allows to be more effective and social beings
Self-directed learners are curious and willing to try new things
Self-directed learners can view problems as challenges, desire changem and enjoy learning
Self-directed learners are motivated and persistent, independent, self-disciplined, self confident and goal-oriented.
Self-directed learners demonstrate a greater awareness of their responsibility in making learning meaningful and monitoring themselves
Self-directed learning encourages student to develop their own rules and leadership patterns
The disavantages of Self-directed learning:
Possible for frequent errors
Self-directed learning is quite time consuming.
Self-directed learning needs an organized manner of planning: inquiring skills, decision making and self-evluation of work


F. Conclusion
Self-directed learning is a process planning study that independently starting from the preparation of the study, looking for learning strategies, achieving the goals of the study even manages the learning system is independently conducted with the aim to develop initiative, creativity, mind set and knowledge as well as information obtained from learning that is conducted independently. In the self-directed learning process there are 4 of them Being ready to learn, Setting learning goals, Engaging in the learning process, Evaluating learning
References
https://uwaterloo.ca/centre-for-teaching-excellence/teaching-resources/teaching-tips/tips-
students/self-directed-learning/self-directed-learning-four-step-process by university of waterlod. Diakses pada jam 11.08 hari senin 30 November 2015
http://www.selfdirectedlearning.org/what-is-self-directed-learning by dana skiff on July 24, 2009. Diakses pada jam 11.08 hari senin 30 November  2015
https://yssschoolclosure2011.wikispaces.com/Student+Directed+Learning+(What+it+means+for+students%3F) . Diakses pada jam 11.13 hari senin 30 November 2015
http://math.sps.upi.edu/?p=61. Diakses pada jam 11.27 hari senin 30 November 2015
http://www.education.com/reference/article/Ref_Self_Directed/.  Diakses pada jam 11.41 hari senin 30 November 2015

Dibuat Oleh:
1. Oriza Devi Febrina
2. Suci Renita Sari
3. Agus Setiawan
4. Khoirudin
COURSE : Psychology Mathematics Learning
Yogyakarta State University (UNY)
Yogyakarta State University (UNY)
Jurusan Pendidikan Matematika
Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pendidikan Alam
Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta

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